Explain it like I'm Five - Bitcoin Mining Difficulty Level
Explain it like I'm Five - Bitcoin Mining Difficulty Level
Genesis block - Bitcoin Wiki
Bitcoin - CryptoMarketsWiki
ELI5: Bitcoins : explainlikeimfive - reddit
ELI5: How are Bitcoins "mined" : explainlikeimfive
ColossusXT Q2 AMA Ends!
Thank you for being a part of the ColossusXT Reddit AMA! Below we will summarize the questions and answers. The team responded to 78 questions! If you question was not included, it may have been answered in a previous question. The ColossusXT team will do a Reddit AMA at the end of every quarter. The winner of the Q2 AMA Contest is: Shenbatu Q: Why does your blockchain exist and what makes it unique? A: ColossusXT exists to provide an energy efficient method of supercomputing. ColossusXT is unique in many ways. Some coins have 1 layer of privacy. ColossusXT and the Colossus Grid will utilize 2 layers of privacy through Obfuscation Zerocoin Protocol, and I2P and these will protect users of the Colossus Grid as they utilize grid resources. There are also Masternodes and Proof of Stake which both can contribute to reducing 51% attacks, along with instant transactions and zero-fee transactions. This protection is paramount as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. Grid Computing will have a pivotal role throughout the world, and what this means is that users will begin to experience the Internet as a seamless computational universe. Software applications, databases, sensors, video and audio streams-all will be reborn as services that live in cyberspace, assembling and reassembling themselves on the fly to meet the tasks at hand. Once plugged into the grid, a desktop machine will draw computational horsepower from all the other computers on the grid. Q: What is the Colossus Grid? A: ColossusXT is an anonymous blockchain through obfuscation, Zerocoin Protocol, along with utilization of I2P. These features will protect end user privacy as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. The Colossus Grid will connect devices in a peer-to-peer network enabling users and applications to rent the cycles and storage of other users’ machines. This marketplace of computing power and storage will exclusively run on COLX currency. These resources will be used to complete tasks requiring any amount of computation time and capacity, or allow end users to store data anonymously across the COLX decentralized network. Today, such resources are supplied by entities such as centralized cloud providers which are constrained by closed networks, proprietary payment systems, and hard-coded provisioning operations. Any user ranging from a single PC owner to a large data center can share resources through Colossus Grid and get paid in COLX for their contributions. Renters of computing power or storage space, on the other hand, may do so at low prices compared to the usual market prices because they are only using resources that already exist. Q: When will zerocoin be fully integrated? A: Beta has been released for community testing on Test-Net. As soon as all the developers consider the code ready for Main-Net, it will be released. Testing of the code on a larger test network network will ensure a smooth transition. Q: Is the end goal for the Colossus Grid to act as a decentralized cloud service, a resource pool for COLX users, or something else? A: Colossus Grid will act as a grid computing resource pool for any user running a COLX node. How and why we apply the grid to solve world problems will be an ever evolving story. Q: What do you think the marketing role in colx.? When ll be the inwallet shared nodes available...i know its been stated in roadmap but as u dont follow roadmap and offer everything in advance...i hope shared MN's to be avilable soon. A: The ColossusXT (COLX) roadmap is a fluid design philosophy. As the project evolves, and our community grows. Our goal is to deliver a working product to the market while at the same time adding useful features for the community to thrive on, perhaps the Colossus Grid and Shared Masternodes will be available both by the end of Q4 2018. Q: When will your github be open to the public? A: The GitHub has been open to the public for a few months now. You can view the GitHub here: https://github.com/ColossusCoinXT The latest commits here: https://github.com/ColossusCoinXT/ColossusCoinXT/commits/master Q: Why should I use COLX instead of Monero? A: ColossusXT offers Proof of Stake and Masternodes both which contribute layers in protection from 51% attacks often attributed with Proof of Work consensus, and in being Proof of Work(Monero) ColossusXT is environmentally friendly compared to Proof of Work (Monero). You can generate passive income from Proof of Stake, and Masternodes. Along with helping secure the network.What really sets ColossusXT apart from Monero, and many other privacy projects being worked on right now, is the Colossus Grid. Once plugged into the Colossus Grid, a desktop machine will draw computational horsepower from all the other computers on the grid. Blockchain, was built on the core value of decentralization and ColossusXT adhere to these standards with end-user privacy in mind in the technology sector. Q: With so many coins out with little to no purpose let alone a definitive use case, how will COLX distinguish itself from the crowd? A: You are right, there are thousands of other coins. Many have no purpose, and we will see others “pumping” from day to day. It is the nature of markets, and crypto as groups move from coin to coin to make a quick profit. As blockchain regulations and information is made more easily digestible projects like ColossusXT will rise. Our goal is to produce a quality product that will be used globally to solve technical problems, in doing so grid computing on the ColossusXT network could create markets of its own within utilizing Super-computing resources. ColossusXT is more than just a currency, and our steadfast approach to producing technical accomplishments will not go unnoticed. Q: Tell the crowd something about the I2P integration plan in the roadmap? 🙂 A: ColossusXT will be moving up the I2P network layer in the roadmap to meet a quicker development pace of the Colossus Grid. The I2P layer will serve as an abstraction layer further obfuscating the users of ColossusXT (COLX) nodes. Abstraction layer allows two parties to communicate in an anonymous manner. This network is optimised for anonymous file-sharing. Q: What kind of protocols, if any, are being considered to prevent or punish misuse of Colossus Grid resources by bad actors, such as participation in a botnet/denial of service attack or the storage of stolen information across the Grid? A: What defines bad actors? ColossusXT plans on marketing to governments and cyber security companies globally. Entities and individuals who will certainly want their privacy protected. There is a grey area between good and bad, and that is something we can certainly explore as a community. Did you have any ideas to contribute to this evolving variable?What we mean when we say marketing towards security companies and governments is being utilized for some of the projects and innovating new ways of grid computing. Security: https://wiki.ncsa.illinois.edu/display/cybersec/Projects+and+Software Governments: https://www.techwalla.com/articles/what-are-the-uses-of-a-supercomputer Q: The Colossus Grid is well defined but I don't feel easily digestible. Has their been any talk of developing an easier to understand marketing plan to help broaden the investoadoptor base? A: As we get closer to the release of the Colossus Grid marketing increase for the Colossus Grid. It will have a user friendly UI, and we will provide Guides and FAQ’s with the release that any user intending to share computing power will be able to comprehend. Q: Can you compare CollossusXT and Golem? A: Yes. The Colosssus Grid is similar to other grid computing projects. The difference is that ColossusXT is on it’s own blockchain, and does not rely on the speed or congestion of a 3rd party blockchain. The Colossus Grid has a privacy focus and will market to companies, and individuals who would like to be more discreet when buying or selling resources by offering multiple levels of privacy protections. Q: How do you guys want to achieve to be one of the leaders as a privacy coin? A: Being a privacy coin leader is not our end game. Privacy features are just a small portion of our framework. The Colossus Grid will include privacy features, but a decentralized Supercomputer is what will set us apart and we intend to be leading this industry in the coming years as our vision, and development continue to grow and scale with technology. Q: With multiple coins within this space, data storage and privacy, how do you plan to differentiate COLX from the rest? Any further partnerships planned? A: The Colossus Grid will differentiate ColossusXT from coins within the privacy space. The ColossusXT blockchain will differentiate us from the DATA storage space. Combining these two features with the ability to buy and sell computing power to complete different computational tasks through a decentralized marketplace. We intend to involve more businesses and individuals within the community and will invite many companies to join in connecting the grid to utilize shared resources and reduce energy waste globally when the BETA is available. Q: Has colossus grid had the best come up out of all crypto coins? A: Possibly. ColossusXT will continue to “come up” as we approach the launch of the Colossus Grid network. Q: How far have Colossus gone in the ATM integration A: ColossusXT intends to and will play an important role in the mass adoption of cryptocurrencies. We already have an ongoing partnership with PolisPay which will enable use of COLX via master debit cards. Along with this established relationship, ColossusXT team is in touch with possible companies to use colx widely where these can only be disclosed upon mutual agreement. Q: How does COLX intend to disrupt the computing industry through Grid Computing? A: Using the Colossus Grid on the ColossusXT blockchain, strengthens the network. Computers sit idly by for huge portions of the day. Connecting to the Colossus Grid and contributing those idle resources can make use of all the computing power going to waste, and assist in advancing multiple technology sectors and solving issues. Reducing costs, waste, and increased speed in technology sectors such as scientific research, machine learning, cyber security, and making it possible for anyone with a desktop PC to contribute resources to the Colossus Grid and earn passive income. Q: What kind of partnerships do you have planned and can you share any of them? :) A: The ColossusXT team will announce partnerships when they are available. It’s important to finalize all information and create strong avenues of communication between partners ColossusXT works with in the future. We are currently speaking with many different exchanges, merchants, and discussing options within our technology sector for utilizing the Colossus Grid. Q: Will shared Masternodes be offered by the COLX team? Or will there be any partnerships with something like StakingLab, StakeUnited, or SimplePosPool? StakingLab allows investors of any size to join their shared Masternodes, so any investor of any size can join. Is this a possibility in the future? A: ColossusXT has already partnered with StakingLab. We also plan to implement shared Masternodes in the desktop wallet. Q: How innovative is the Colossus Grid in the privacy coin space? A: Most privacy coins are focused on being just a currency / form of payment. No other project is attempting to do what we are doing with a focus on user privacy. Q: Hey guys do you think to integrated with some other plataforms like Bancor? I would like it! A: ColossusXT is in touch with many exchange platforms, however, due to non disclosure agreements details cannot be shared until it is mutually decided with the partners. We will always be looking for new platforms to spread the use of colx in different parts of the world and crypto space. Q: What is the reward system for the master node owners? A: From block 388.800 onwards, block reward is 1200 colx and this is split based on masternode ownestaker ratio. This split is based on see-saw algorithm. With an increasing number of masternodes the see-saw algorithm disincentivizes the establishment of even more masternodes because it lowers their profitability. To be precise, as soon as more than 41.5% of the total COLX coin supply is locked in masternodes, more than 50% of the block reward will be distributed to regular staking nodes. As long as the amount of locked collateral funds is below the threshold of 41.5%, the see-saw algorithm ensure that running a masternode is financially more attractive than running a simple staking node, to compensate for the additional effort that a masternode requires in comparison to a simple staking node.Please refer to our whitepaper for more information. Q: What other marketplaces has the COLX team been in contact with? Thanks guys! Love the coin and staff A: ColossusXT gets in touch for different platforms based on community request and also based on partnership requests received upon ColossusXT business team’s mutual agreement. Unfortunately, these possibilities cannot be shared until they are mutually agreed between the partners and ColossusXT team due to non disclosure agreements. Q:What do you think about the new rules that will soon govern crypto interactions in the EU?they are against anonymous payments A: Blockchain technology is just now starting to become clear to different governments. ColossusXT's privacy features protect the end-user from oversharing personal information. As you are probably aware from the multiple emails you've received recently from many websites. Privacy policies are always being updated and expanded upon. The use of privacy features with utility coins like ColossusXT should be a regular norm throughout blockchain. This movement is part is about decentralization as much as it is about improving technology. While this news may have a role to play. I don't think it is THE role that will continuously be played as blockchain technology is implemented throughout the world. Q: Any hints on the next big feature implementation you guys are working on? According to road map - really excited to hear more about the Shared MN and the scale of the marketplace! A: Current work is focused on the privacy layer of Colossus Grid and completing the updated wallet interface. Q: Why choose COLX, or should I say why should we believe in COLX becoming what you promise in the roadmap. What are you different from all the other privacy coins with block chain establishment already in effect? A: ColossusXT is an environmentally friendly Proof of Stake, with Masternode technology that provide dual layers of protection from 51% attacks. It includes privacy features that protect the user while the utilize resources from the Colossus Grid. Some of the previous questions within this AMA may also answer this question. Q: What tradeoffs do you have using the Colossus Grid versus the more typical distribution? A: The advantage of supercomputers is that since data can move between processors rapidly, all of the processors can work together on the same tasks. Supercomputers are suited for highly-complex, real-time applications and simulations. However, supercomputers are very expensive to build and maintain, as they consist of a large array of top-of-the-line processors, fast memory, custom hardware, and expensive cooling systems. They also do not scale well, since their complexity makes it difficult to easily add more processors to such a precisely designed and finely tuned system.By contrast, the advantage of distributed systems (Like Colossus Grid) is that relative to supercomputers they are much less expensive. Many distributed systems make use of cheap, off-the-shelf computers for processors and memory, which only require minimal cooling costs. In addition, they are simpler to scale, as adding an additional processor to the system often consists of little more than connecting it to the network. However, unlike supercomputers, which send data short distances via sophisticated and highly optimized connections, distributed systems must move data from processor to processor over slower networks making them unsuitable for many real-time applications. Q: Why should I choose Colossus instead of another 100,000 altcoins? A: Many of these alt-coins are all very different projects. ColossusXT is the only Grid computing project with a focus on user privacy. We have instant transactions, and zero-fee transactions and ColossusXT is one of the very few coins to offer live support. Check out our Whitepaper! Q: Will there be an option (in the future) to choose between an anonymous or public transaction? A: Zerocoin is an evolution of the current coin mixing feature. Both allow an individual to decide how they would like to send their transactions. Q: What exchange has highest volume for ColossusXT, and are there any plans for top exchanges soon ? A: Currently Cryptopia carries the majority of ColossusXT volume. We are speaking with many different exchanges, and preparing requested documentation for different exchanges. ColossusXT intends to be traded on every major exchange globally. Q: What is the TPS speed that colx blockchain achieves? A: ColossusXT achieves between 65-67 TPS depending on network conditions currently. Q: Plans on expanding the dev team? A: As development funds allow it, the team will be expanded. Development costs are high for a unique product like ColossusXT, and a good majority of our budget is allocated to it. Q: Can you explain what is and what are the full porpose of the COLOSSUSXT GRID PROJECT ? A: Colossus Grid is explained in the whitepaper. The uses for grid computing and storage are vast, and we are only starting to scratch the surface on what this type of computing power can do. There is also a description within the formatting context within the AMA of the Colossus Grid. Q: Is there mobile wallet for Android and iOS? If not, is there a roadmap? A: There Android wallet is out of beta and on the Google PlayStore: iOS wallet is planned for development. The roadmap can be found here: https://colossusxt.io/roadmap/ Q: Is ColossusXT planning on partnering up with other cryptocurrency projects? Such as: Bread and EQUAL. A: ColossusXT plans on partnering with other crypto projects that make sense. We look for projects that can help alleviate some of our development work / provide quality of life upgrades to our investors so that we can focus on Colossus Grid development. When absolutely love it when the community comes to us with great projects to explore. Q: Did you ever considered a coinburn? Don't you think a coin burn will increase COLX price and sustain mass adoption? Do you plan on keeping the price of COLX in a range so the potential big investors can invest in a not so much volatile project? A**:** There are no plans to do a coinburn at this time. Please check out our section in the whitepaper about the supply. Q: what is the next big exchange for colx to be listed ? A: There are several exchanges that will be listing ColossusXT soon. Stay tuned for updates within the community as some have already been announced and future announcements.
Q: How will Colx compete with other privacy coins which claim to be better like Privacy? A: ColossusXT is not competing with other privacy coins. ColossusXT will evolve into the Colossus Grid, which is built on the backbone of a privacy blockchain. In our vision, all these other privacy coins are competing for relevancy with ColossusXT. There are also similar responses to question that may hit on specifics. Q: Does COLX have a finite number of coins like bitcoin? A: No, ColossusXT is Proof of Stake. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proof-of-stake Q: What are the advantages of COLX over other competitor coins (eg. ECA)? A: The only similarities between ColossusXT and Electra is that we are both privacy blockchains. ColossusXT is very much an entirely different project that any other privacy coin in the blockchain world today. The Colossus Grid will be a huge advantage over any other privacy coin. Offering the ability for a desktop machine to rent power from others contributing to the Colossus Grid and perform and compute high level tasks. Q: How do you feel about some countries frowning upon privacy coins and how do you plan to change their minds (and what do you plan to do about it?) A: The ColossusXT team tries to view opinions from multiple perspectives so that we can understand each line of thinking. As blockchain technology becomes more widely adopted, so will the understanding of the importance of the privacy features within ColossusXT. Privacy is freedom. Q: How do you see COLX in disrupting cloud gaming services such as PlayStation Now? A: Cloud gaming services have not been discussed. Initial marketing of our private grid computing framework will be targeted at homes users, governments, and cyber security firms who may require more discretion / anonymity in their work. Q: Since colx is a privacy coin and is known for its privacy in the transactions due to which lot of money laundering and scams could take place, would colx and its community be affected due to it? And if does then how could we try to prevent it? A: ColossusXT intends to be known for the Colossus Grid. The Colossus Grid development will be moved up from Q1 2019 to Q3 2018 to reflect this message and prevent further miscommunication about what privacy means for the future of ColossusXT. Previous answers within this AMA may further elaborate on this question. Q: When do you plan to list your coin on other "bigger" exchanges? A: ColossusXT is speaking with many different exchanges. These things have many different factors. Exchanges decide on listing dates and we expect to see ColossusXT listed on larger exchanges as we approach the Colossus Grid Beta. The governance system can further assist in funding. Q: What was the rationale behind naming your coin ColossusXT? A:Colossus was a set of computers developed by British codebreakers in the years 1943–1945. XT symbolises ‘extended’ as the coin was forked from the original Cv2 coin. Q: Can you give any details about the E Commerce Marketplace, and its progress? A: The Ecommerce Marketplace is a project that will receive attention after our development pass on important privacy features for the grid. In general, our roadmap will be changing to put an emphasis on grid development. Q: How will someone access the grid, and how will you monetize using the grid? Will there be an interface that charges COLX for time on the grid or data usage? A: The Colossus Grid will be integrated within the ColossusXT wallet. Buying & Selling resources will happen within the wallet interface. You won't be able to charge for "time" on the grid, and have access to unlimited resources. The goal is to have users input what resources they need, and the price they are willing to pay. The Colossus Grid will then look for people selling resources at a value the buyer is willing to pay. Time may come into play based on which resources you are specifically asking for. Q: Are there any plans to launch an official YouTube channel with instructional videos about basic use of the wallets and features of COLX? Most people are visually set and learn much faster about wallets when actually seeing it happen before they try themselves. This might attract people to ColossusXT and also teach people about basic use of blockchain and cryptocurrency wallets. I ask this because I see a lot of users on Discord and Telegram that are still learning and are asking a lot of real basic questions. A: ColossusXT has an official YT account with instructional videos: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCCmMLUSK4YoxKvrLoKJnzng Q: What are the usp's of colx in comparing to other privacy coins? A: Privacy coins are a dime a dozen. ColossusXT has different end goals than most privacy coins, and this cannot be stated enough. Our goal is not just to be another currency, but to build a sophisticated computing resource sharing architecture on top of the privacy blockchain. Q: A new exchange will probably gain more liquidity for our coin. If you might choose 3 exchanges to get COLX listed, what would be your top 3? A: ColossusXT intends to be listed on all major exchanges globally. :) Q: What is the future of privacy coins? What will be the future colx userbase (beyond the first adopters and enthusiasts)? A: The future of privacy is the same it has always been. Privacy is something each and everyone person owns, until they give it away to someone else. Who is in control of your privacy? You or another person or entity?The future of the ColossusXT user base will comprise of early adopters, enthusiast, computer science professionals, artificial intelligence, and computational linguistics professionals for which these users can utilize the Colossus Grid a wide range of needs. Q: Will ColossusXT join more exchanges soon?? A: Yes. :) Q: So when will Colossus put out lots of advertisement to the various social media sites to get better known? Like Youtube videos etc. A: As we get closer to a product launch of the Colossus Grid, you’ll begin to see more advertisements, YouTubers, and interviews. We’re looking to also provide some presentations at blockchain conferences in 2018, and 2019. Q: In your opinion, what are some of the issues holding COLX back from wider adoption? In that vein, what are some of the steps the team is considering to help address those issues? A: One of the main issues that is holding ColossusXT back from a wider adoption is our endgame is very different from other privacy coins. The Colossus Grid. In order to address this issue, the ColossusXT team intends to have a Colossus Grid Beta out by the end of Q4 and we will move development of the Colossus Grid from Q1 2019 to Q3 2018. Q: Or to see it from another perspective - what are some of the biggest issues with crypto-currency and how does COLX address those issues? A: Biggest issue is that cryptocurrency is seen as a means to make quick money, what project is going to get the biggest “pump” of the week, and there is not enough focus on building blockchain technologies that solve problems or creating legitimate business use cases. For the most part we believe the base of ColossusXT supporters see our end-game, and are willing to provide us with the time and support to complete our vision. The ColossusXT team keeps its head down and keeps pushing forward. Q: I know it's still early in the development phase but can you give a little insight into what to look forward to regarding In-wallet voting and proposals system for the community? How much power will the community have regarding the direction COLX development takes in the future? A: The budget and proposal system is detailed in the whitepaper. Masternode owners vote on and guide the development of ColossusXT by voting on proposals put forth by the community and business partners. Our goal is to make this process as easy and accessible as possible to our community. Q: Will there be an article explaining the significance of each partnership formed thus far? A: Yes, the ColossusXT team will announce partners on social media, and community outlets. A detailed article of what partnerships mean will be available on our Medium page: https://medium.com/@colossusxt Q: What potential output from the Grid is expected and what would it's use be? For example, x teraflops which could process y solutions to protein folding in z time. A: There are many uses for grid computing. A crypto enthusiast mining crypto, a cyber security professional cracking a password using brute force, or a scientist producing climate prediction models. The resources available to put towards grid projects will be determined by the number of nodes sharing resources, and the amount of resources an individual is willing to purchase with COLX. All individuals will not have access to infinite grid resources. Q: Is there a paper wallet available? A: Yes, see https://mycolxwallet.org Q: Is there a possibility of implementing quantum computer measures in the future? A: This is a great idea for potentially another project in the future. Currently this is not possible with the Colossus Grid. Instead of bits, which conventional computers use, a quantum computer uses quantum bits—known as qubits. In classical computing, a bit is a single piece of information that can exist in two states – 1 or 0. Quantum computing uses quantum bits, or 'qubits' instead. These are quantum systems with two states. However, unlike a usual bit, they can store much more information than just 1 or 0, because they can exist in any superposition of these values. Q: Do you plan to do a coin burn? A: No future coin burns are planned. Anything like this would go through a governance proposal and Masternode owners would vote on this. This is not anything we’ve seen within the community being discussed. Q: Can I check the exact number of current COLX master node and COLX staking node? A: Yes. You can view the Masternodes and the amount of ColossusXT (COLX) being staked by viewing the block explorer. Block explorer: https://chainz.cryptoid.info/colx/#!extraction Q: What incentive could we give a youtuber to do the BEST video of ColossusXT (COLX)? A: We've been approached by several YouTubers. The best thing a YouTuber can do is understand what ColossusXT is, join the community, ask questions if there is something they don't understand. The problem with many YouTubers is that some of them are just trying to get paid, they don't really care to provide context or research a project. Disclaimer: This is not all YouTubers, but many. Q: In which ways is the ColossusGrid different from other supercomputer / distributed computing projects out there. Golem comes to mind. Thanks! A: The main difference is that we are focused on the end users privacy, and the types of users that we will be targeting will be those that need more discretion / anonymity in their work. We are building framework that will continue to push the boundaries of user privacy as it relates to grid computing. Q: Can we please complete our roadmap ahead of schedule? I find most other coins that do this actually excell in terms of price and community members. Keep on top of the game :) A: The Colossus XT roadmap is a very fluid document, and it is always evolving. Some items are moved up in priority, and others are moved back. The roadmap should not be thought of something that is set in stone. Q: Does COLX have master nodes? A: Yes. ColossusXT has masternodes. Q: Have thought about providing a method to insert a form of payment in colx in any page that wants to use cryptocurrencies in a fast and simple way in order to masive adoption???? A: There is already this option.https://mycryptocheckout.com/coins/ Q: What do you think your community progress till now? A: The community has grown greatly in the last 3 months. We’re very excited to go from 13 to 100 questions in our quarterly AMA. Discord, Telegram, and Twitter are growing everyday. Q: I noticed on Roadmap: Coinomi and ahapeshift wallet integration. Can you tell me more about this? I am new in crypto and new ColX investor so I don't know much about this. Thanks and keep a good work. A: Coinomi is a universal wallet. ColossusXT will have multiple wallet platforms available to it. Shapeshift allows you to switch one crypto directly for another without the use of a coupler (BTC). Q: Is "A general-purpose decentralized marketplace" written in the whitepaper the same as "E-COMMERCE MARKETPLACE" written on the roadmap? Please tell me about "A general-purpose decentralized marketplace" or "E-COMMERCE MARKETPLACE" in detail. A: Details will be posted as we get closer to the marketplace. It will be similar to other marketplaces within blockchain. Stay tuned for more information by following us on Twitter. Q: History has shown that feature-based technologies always get replaced by technologies with platforms that incorporate those features; what is colossius big picture? A: The Colossus Grid. Which has been explained within this AMA in a few different ways. Q: What are the main objectives for COLX team this year? Provide me 5 reason why COLX will survive in a long term perspective? Do you consider masternodes working in a private easy to setup wallet on a DEX network? Already big fan, have a nice day! A: Getting into Q3 our main object is to get a working product of the Colossus Grid by the end of Q4.
Community - Our community is growing everyday as knowledge about what we’re building grows. When the Colossus Grid is online we expect expansion to grow at a rapid pace as users connect to share resources.
Team - The ColossusXT team will continue to grow. We are stewards of a great community and an amazing project. Providing a level of support currently unseen in many other projects through Discord. The team cohesion and activity within the community is a standard we intend to set within the blockchain communities.
Features - ColossusXT and The Colossus Grid will have user friendly AI. We understand the difficulties when users first enter blockchain products. The confusion between keys, sending/receiving addresses, and understanding available features within. Guides will always be published for Windows/Mac/Linux with updates so that these features can be easily understood.
Colossus Grid - The Colossus Grid answers real world problems, and provides multiple solutions while also reducing energy consumption.
Use Case - Many of the 1000+ other coins on the market don’t have the current use-case that ColossusXT has, let alone the expansion of utility use-cases in multiple sectors.
List of Scott's most influential twitter followers
It seems like Scott/SSC has gotten much more mainstream recognition over the past year, so I was curious to know who the most influential SSC readers are now. Using twitter follower data for this isn't perfect (follower count is not a perfect proxy for influence, not all SSC readers follow the twitter account, etc.), but it's the best I could think of and I figured it would be a fun exercise regardless. As an aside, a few interesting stats I learned about Scott's twitter followers (scraped on 12/30/17):
Of the top 100 most-followed followers, the gender breakdown (by my count) is 82 men vs 8 women (along with 10 organization or anonymous accounts). Among the top 50, it's 43 men and 1 woman (Liv Boeree)
385 followers (2% of the total) have bios including either "bitcoin", "ethereum", "crypto" or "blockchain"
There are 67 followers whose bios include either "@Google", "@ Google", "at Google", or "Googler"
Note: When constructing the top 100 below, I excluded accounts that had extremely large Following counts, since I wanted the list to just consist of (likely) actual SSC readers. My exact rule was to exclude any account that follows >20K, include any that follows <10K, and include accounts in the 10K-20K range iff their following/follower ratio was less than 10% (this last condition was mostly just because I wanted to keep @pmarca on the list). Anyway, below is the top 100. I also constructed lists for Eliezer, Robin Hanson, and gwern, and I can post those in the comments if anyone's interested.
Editor-in-Chief, @FiveThirtyEight. Author, The Signal and the Noise (http://amzn.to/QdyFYV). Sports/politics/food geek.
I'm writing a series about blockchain tech and possible future security risks. This is the third part of the series introducing Quantum resistant blockchains.
Part 1 and part 2 will give you usefull basic blockchain knowledge that is not explained in this part. Part 1 here Part 2 here Quantum resistant blockchains explained. - How would quantum computers pose a threat to blockchain? - Expectations in the field of quantum computer development. - Quantum resistant blockchains - Why is it easier to change cryptography for centralized systems such as banks and websites than for blockchain? - Conclusion The fact that whatever is registered on a blockchain can’t be tampered with is one of the great reasons for the success of blockchain. Looking ahead, awareness is growing in the blockchain ecosystem that quantum computers might cause the need for some changes in the cryptography that is used by blockchains to prevent hackers from forging transactions. How would quantum computers pose a threat to blockchain? First, let’s get a misconception out of the way. When talking about the risk quantum computers could pose for blockchain, some people think about the risk of quantum computers out-hashing classical computers. This, however, is not expected to pose a real threat when the time comes. This paper explains why: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.10377.pdf "In this section, we investigate the advantage a quantum computer would have in performing the hashcash PoW used by Bitcoin. Our findings can be summarized as follows: Using Grover search, a quantum computer can perform the hashcash PoW by performing quadratically fewer hashes than is needed by a classical computer. However, the extreme speed of current specialized ASIC hardware for performing the hashcash PoW, coupled with much slower projected gate speeds for current quantum architectures, essentially negates this quadratic speedup, at the current difficulty level, giving quantum computers no advantage. Future improvements to quantum technology allowing gate speeds up to 100GHz could allow quantum computers to solve the PoW about 100 times faster than current technology. However, such a development is unlikely in the next decade, at which point classical hardware may be much faster, and quantum technology might be so widespread that no single quantum enabled agent could dominate the PoW problem." The real point of vulnerability is this: attacks on signatures wherein the private key is derived from the public key. That means that if someone has your public key, they can also calculate your private key, which is unthinkable using even today’s most powerful classical computers. So in the days of quantum computers, the public-private keypair will be the weak link. Quantum computers have the potential to perform specific kinds of calculations significantly faster than any normal computer. Besides that, quantum computers can run algorithms that take fewer steps to get to an outcome, taking advantage of quantum phenomena like quantum entanglement and quantum superposition. So quantum computers can run these certain algorithms that could be used to make calculations that can crack cryptography used today. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliptic-curve_cryptography#Quantum_computing_attacks and https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/598.pdf Most blockchains use Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) cryptography. Using a quantum computer, Shor's algorithm can be used to break ECDSA. (See for reference: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0301141 and pdf: https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0301141.pdf ) Meaning: they can derive the private key from the public key. So if they got your public key (and a quantum computer), then they got your private key and they can create a transaction and empty your wallet. RSA has the same vulnerability while RSA will need a stronger quantum computer to be broken than ECDSA. At this point in time, it is already possible to run Shor’s algorithm on a quantum computer. However, the amount of qubits available right now makes its application limited. But it has been proven to work, we have exited the era of pure theory and entered the era of practical applications:
2001: First execution of Shor's algorithm at IBM's Almaden Research Center and Stanford University. The paper here: (Experimental realization of Shor's quantum factoring algorithm using nuclear magnetic resonance Lieven M. K. Vandersypen, https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0112176 )
So far Shor's algorithm has the most potential, but new algorithms might appear which are more efficient. Algorithms are another area of development that makes progress and pushes quantum computer progress forward. A new algorithm called Variational Quantum Factoring is being developed and it looks quite promising. " The advantage of this new approach is that it is much less sensitive to error, does not require massive error correction, and consumes far fewer resources than would be needed with Shor’s algorithm. As such, it may be more amenable for use with the current NISQ (Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum) computers that will be available in the near and medium term." https://quantumcomputingreport.com/news/zapata-develops-potential-alternative-to-shors-factoring-algorithm-for-nisq-quantum-computers/ It is however still in development, and only works for 18 binary bits at the time of this writing, but it shows new developments that could mean that, rather than a speedup in quantum computing development posing the most imminent threat to RSA and ECDSA, a speedup in the mathematical developments could be even more consequential. More info on VQF here: https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.08927 It all comes down to this: when your public key is visible, which is always necessary to make transactions, you are at some point in the future vulnerable for quantum attacks. (This also goes for BTC, which uses the hash of the public key as an address, but more on that in the following articles.) If you would have keypairs based on post quantum cryptography, you would not have to worry about that since in that case not even a quantum computer could derive your private key from your public key. The conclusion is that future blockchains should be quantum resistant, using post-quantum cryptography. It’s very important to realize that post quantum cryptography is not just adding some extra characters to standard signature schemes. It’s the mathematical concept that makes it quantum resistant. to become quantm resistant, the algorithm needs to be changed. “The problem with currently popular algorithms is that their security relies on one of three hard mathematical problems: the integer factorization problem, the discrete logarithm problem or the elliptic-curve discrete logarithm problem. All of these problems can be easily solved on a sufficiently powerful quantum computer running Shor's algorithm. Even though current, publicly known, experimental quantum computers lack processing power to break any real cryptographic algorithm, many cryptographers are designing new algorithms to prepare for a time when quantum computing becomes a threat.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-quantum_cryptography Expectations in the field of quantum computer development. To give you an idea what the expectations of quantum computer development are in the field (Take note of the fact that the type and error rate of the qubits is not specified in the article. It is not said these will be enough to break ECDSA or RSA, neither is it said these will not be enough. What these articles do show, is that a huge speed up in development is expected.):
When will ECDSA be at risk? Estimates are only estimates, there are several to be found so it's hard to really tell. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has made a very thourough report on the development of quantum computing. The report came out in the end of 2018. They brought together a group of scientists of over 70 people from different interconnecting fields in quantum computing who, as a group, have come up with a close to 200 pages report on the development, funding, implications and upcoming challenges for quantum computing development. But, even though this report is one of the most thourough up to date, it doesn't make an estimate on when the risk for ECDSA or RSA would occur. They acknowledge this is quite impossible due to the fact there are a lot of unknowns and due to the fact that they have to base any findings only on publicly available information, obviously excluding any non available advancements from commercial companies and national efforts. So if this group of specialized scientists can’t make an estimate, who can make that assessment? Is there any credible source to make an accurate prediction? The conclusion at this point of time can only be that we do not know the answer to the big question "when". Now if we don't have an answer to the question "when", then why act? The answer is simple. If we’re talking about security, most take certainty over uncertainty. To answer the question when the threat materializes, we need to guess. Whether you guess soon, or you guess not for the next three decades, both are guesses. Going for certain means you'd have to plan for the worst, hope for the best. No matter how sceptical you are, having some sort of a plan ready is a responsible thing to do. Obviously not if you're just running a blog about knitting. But for systems that carry a lot of important, private and valuable information, planning starts today. The NAS describes it quite well. What they lack in guessing, they make up in advice. They have a very clear advice:
"Even if a quantum computer that can decrypt current cryptographic ciphers is more than a decade off, the hazard of such a machine is high enough—and the time frame for transitioning to a new security protocol is sufficiently long and uncertain—that prioritization of the development, standardization, and deployment of post-quantum cryptography is critical for minimizing the chance of a potential security and privacy disaster."
Another organization that looks ahead is the National Security Agency (NSA) They have made a threat assessment in 2015. In August 2015, NSA announced that it is planning to transition "in the not too distant future" (statement of 2015) to a new cipher suite that is resistant to quantum attacks. "Unfortunately, the growth of elliptic curve use has bumped up against the fact of continued progress in the research on quantum computing, necessitating a re-evaluation of our cryptographic strategy." NSA advised: "For those partners and vendors that have not yet made the transition to Suite B algorithms, we recommend not making a significant expenditure to do so at this point but instead to prepare for the upcoming quantum resistant algorithm transition.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NSA_Suite_B_Cryptography#cite_note-nsa-suite-b-1 What these organizations both advice is to start taking action. They don't say "implement this type of quantum resistant cryptography now". They don't say when at all. As said before, the "when" question is one that is a hard one to specify. It depends on the system you have, the value of the data, the consequences of postponing a security upgrade. Like I said before: you just run a blog, or a bank or a cryptocurrency? It's an individual risk assesment that's different for every organization and system. Assesments do need to be made now though. What time frame should organisationds think about when changing cryptography? How long would it take to go from the current level of security to fully quantum resistant security? What changes does it require to handle bigger signatures and is it possible to use certain types of cryptography that require to keep state? Do your users need to act, or can al work be done behind the user interface? These are important questions that one should start asking. I will elaborate on these challenges in the next articles. Besides the unsnswered question on "when", the question on what type of quantum resistant cryptography to use is unanswered too. This also depends on the type of system you use. The NSA and NAS both point to NIST as the authority on developments and standardization of quantum resistant cryptography. NIST is running a competition right now that should end up in one or more standards for quantum resistant cryptography. The NIST competition handles criteria that should filter out a type of quantum resistant cryptography that is feasable for a wide range of systems. This takes time though. There are some new algorithms submitted and assessing the new and the more well known ones must be done thouroughly. They intend to wrap things up around 2022 - 2024. From a blockchain perspective it is important to notice that a specific type of quantum resistant cryptography is excluded from the NIST competition: Stateful Hash-Based Signatures. (LMS and XMSS) This is not because these are no good. In fact they are excelent and XMSS is accepted to be provable quantum resistant. It's due to the fact that implementations will need to be able to securely deal with the requirement to keep state. And this is not a given for most systems. At this moment NIST intends to approve both LMS and XMSS for a specific group of applications that can deal with the statefull properties. The only loose end at this point is an advice for which applications LMS and XMSS will be adviced and for what applications it is discouraged. These questions will be answered in the beginning of april this year: https://csrc.nist.gov/news/2019/stateful-hbs-request-for-public-comments This means that quite likely LMS and XMSS will be the first type of standardized quantum resistant cryptography ever. To give a small hint: keeping state, is pretty much a naturally added property of blockchain. Quantum resistant blockchains “Quantum resistant” is only used to describe networks and cryptography that are secure against any attack by a quantum computer of any size in the sense that there is no algorithm known that makes it possible for a quantum computer to break the applied cryptography and thus that system. Also, to determine if a project is fully quantum resistant, you would need to take in account not only how a separate element that is implemented in that blockchain is quantum resistant, but also the way it is implemented. As with any type of security check, there should be no backdoors, in which case your blockchain would be just a cardboard box with bulletproof glass windows. Sounds obvious, but since this is kind of new territory, there are still some misconceptions. What is considered safe now, might not be safe in the age of quantum computers. I will address some of these in the following chapters, but first I will elaborate a bit about the special vulnerability of blockchain compared to centralized systems. Why is it easier to change cryptography for centralized systems such as banks and websites than for blockchain? Developers of a centralized system can decide from one day to the other that they make changes and update the system without the need for consensus from the nodes. They are in charge, and they can dictate the future of the system. But a decentralized blockchain will need to reach consensus amongst the nodes to update. Meaning that the majority of the nodes will need to upgrade and thus force the blockchain to only have the new signatures to be valid. We can’t have the old signature scheme to be valid besides the new quantum resistant signature scheme. Because that would mean that the blockchain would still allow the use of vulnerable, old public- and private keys and thus the old vulnerable signatures for transactions. So at least the majority of the nodes need to upgrade to make sure that blocks which are constructed using the old rules and thus the old vulnerable signature scheme, are rejected by the network. This will eventually result in a fully upgraded network which only accepts the new post quantum signature scheme in transactions. So, consensus is needed. The most well-known example of how that can be a slow process is Bitcoin’s need to scale. Even though everybody agrees on the need for a certain result, reaching consensus amongst the community on how to get to that result is a slow and political process. Going quantum resistant will be no different, and since it will cause lesser performance due to bigger signatures and it will need hardware upgrades quite likely it will be postponed rather than be done fast and smooth due to lack of consensus. And because there are several quantum resistant signature schemes to choose from, agreement an automatic given. The discussion will be which one to use, and how and when to implement it. The need for consensus is exclusively a problem decentralized systems like blockchain will face. Another issue for decentralized systems that change their signature scheme, is that users of decentralized blockchains will have to manually transfe migrate their coins/ tokens to a quantum safe address and that way decouple their old private key and activate a new quantum resistant private key that is part of an upgraded quantum resistant network. Users of centralized networks, on the other hand, do not need to do much, since it would be taken care of by their centralized managed system. As you know, for example, if you forget your password of your online bank account, or some website, they can always send you a link, or secret question, or in the worst case they can send you mail by post to your house address and you would be back in business. With the decentralized systems, there is no centralized entity who has your data. It is you who has this data, and only you. So in the centralized system there is a central entity who has access to all the data including all the private accessing data, and therefore this entity can pull all the strings. It can all be done behind your user interface, and you probably wouldn’t notice a thing. And a third issue will be the lost addresses. Since no one but you has access to your funds, your funds will become inaccessible once you lose your private key. From that point, an address is lost, and the funds on that address can never be moved. So after an upgrade, those funds will never be moved to a quantum resistant address, and thus will always be vulnerable to a quantum hack. To summarize: banks and websites are centralized systems, they will face challenges, but decentralized systems like blockchain will face some extra challenges that won't apply for centralized systems.
Updating the signature scheme will need consensus in the sense that all nodes need to update after implementation of a quantum resistant signature scheme.
Users of blockchain will personally need to move their funds from old addresses to new quantum resistant addresses. You won't need to move your bank funds.
Lost addresses where people lost access to their funds will never be moved and stay vulnerable to quantum hacks. Blockchain doesn't know their users, can't communicate with them and won't be able to distinguish coins on lost addresses from coins from users who still have access but somehow have not migrated their coins after a quantum resistant update. So burning lost coins will be legally a big issue.
[Wednesday, November 22 2017] Ratko Mladić convicted of genocide, war crimes at UN tribunal; 3000-year-old underwater castle discovered in Turkeys largest lake; Bitcoin Mining Consuming More Electricity Than 159 Countries; In honor of Thanksgiving whos your most ridiculous, weird or creepy relative?
maxwellhill Internet Defenders Urge Mass Revolt to Fight FCC's "Scorched-Earth" Attack on Net Neutrality: "FCC Pai is handing over the internet to a few humongous gatekeepers who see the rest of us as products to be delivered to advertisers, not as citizens needing communications that serve democracy's needs.' Comments || Link
ManiaforBeatles A North Korean soldier who was shot at least five times while defecting to the South has regained consciousness. - The soldier asked to watch television and is being shown South Korean films, Yonhap news agency reports Comments || Link
__tea TIL the word "dashboard" originated as a barrier of wood or leather fixed at the front of a horse-drawn carriage or sleigh to protect the driver from mud or other debris "dashed up" (thrown up) by the horses' hooves. Comments || Link
redditFury TIL Carrie Fisher used gaffer's tape to hold down her breasts because George Lucas 'didn't want her looking too aggressively feminine'. Carrie Fisher joked about it saying: 'No breasts bounce in space, no jiggling in the Empire'. Comments || Link
onyx1378 My dog has been desperate to be friends since they met but our new kitten was being stand offish. Tonight he's made progress after learning to use his tail as bait. I think they'll be best friends! Comments || Link
DaRedGuy Tasmanian devils are endangered due to a transmissible cancer. Until around 3000 years ago, they were once found on the Australian mainland. It's been suggested they should be reintroduced back on the mainland to control ferals and to act as insurance. The Palawa call them tarrabah & poirinnah. Comments || Link
leavingstardust Snapping Turtles are remarkably cold-tolerant and while they do hibernate, they have also been known to swim under frozen ponds during the winter. When hibernating, they do not breathe for months. Comments || Link
Everyday we’ll feature a chosen small subreddit and its top content. It's a fun way to include and celebrate smaller subreddits.
Explain [whatever] like IAmA/You Are A [anything you want, literally anything, like so literally anything that you can say "nothing" like "the existentialist void" and that is completely acceptable]. Its top 3 all time posts (excluding the post included in the top section):
gerbil_george Explain the Zimmerman trial like I am Kyle Broflovski, Stan Marsh, and Kenny McCormick and you are Eric Cartman who just heard about it on the news for the first time. Comments
DangerMacAwesome Explain what's cool about an animal of your choosing like you are an enthusiastic unidan who is becoming increasingly drunk. Comments
[deleted] Explain hipters to me like I'm a hipster and you're a hipster and neither of us believe or are willing to believe we're both hipsters. Comments
Anyone who have watched Hunter x Hunter knows the mysterious technique of Nen and how it works. I think many fans of HxH dream if only Nen was in real Life. That's why Im here to analyze Yoshiro Togashi's Nen in details and show you how it's actually a real technique. First of All, we need to know the definition of Togashi's Nen, so according to Fandom Wiki : Nen is a technique that allows a living being to use and manipulate their own Aura (Life energy). If we want to make from this definition a real technique, we need to know what is this "Aura". Because there is many different definitions of Aura. I will just write my own. Aura is something that our body emit, and can be perceived by other living being. But this Aura cannot be measured by tools or machinery. It's not heat nor electromagnetic made by our neural waves nor any physical force field that affect no-living object. We only know this aura can only affect living being. Living with consciousness. The most known Aura effects is the "Feeling of being watch" or "Sensing the presence of someone". If someone was watching you from his own eyes there is a possibility that his aura will have effect you. If he was using a camera from another country watching, his aura will also have effect you. If he was recording the video to watch you later, the moment he watch the video his aura will go to the past and affect you the moment of the recording. But if the recoding was destroyed before any living being had watched it, no aura will affect you. (A little like the Von Neumann-Wigner interpretation of Quantum Observation) That means this aura, is not limited to space nor time, and can only be emitted and received by living with consciousness. So the perfect equivalent aura in real life and in scientific meaning is : Information. In the world of Hunter x Hunter, we can say that everything has some amount of Aura (Nen) in it. Same as in our real world everything has some amount of information in it. There is an example that confirm the fact that equivalent of the Nen is information, is when Wing shown Gon, Killua and Zushi the CD video of Hisoka's match agains Kastro. Paused at a Bungi Gum attack, Wing tell them to concentrate their Aura in the eyes (Gyo) to see the Bungi Gum. But the video was just a recording from a CD. Did the camera recorded the lights waves of the aura? if so, changing brightness, color and contrast from Photoshop or AfterEffect will expose the Aura. And it also means it possible to make a detector that can detect and measure Aura. But Aura is not a frequency wave, it's does not emit light. I dont know what is the explication of this in the Anime. But if we see Aura as information, it make perfect sense. The video has hidden information that can be deduced only if you concentrate on your eyes and analyze the image. Like concentrate your eyes on the hand movement of a real magician manipulating objects to find the trick. I think this is the scene where Togashi was referring in the Anime. The perfect equivalent of Hisoka's video in real life is this video of the mentalist Lior Suchard manipulating a whole audience. www.youtube.com/watch?v=J94uO-urSTg Can you see the trick? No, it's not injecting the word "S-T-A-R" in the mind, his explanation is incorrect. Keep in mind a mentalist/magician will never expose his tricks. The real trick is the hardest, he manipulated the information flux of the whole surrounding, by carefully listening to all inputs from his 5 senses. and analyzing the best words, body reaction, and state of mind to make the outcome the closest to the probability of every one drawing a star (he say himself, he use only his 5 sense there is no 6). He did like Tool Assisted Speedrun (TAS) in video games, but in real life. He already have build up with experiance an emulator of real life and social interaction events in his mind where he can simulate the outcome and search for the best inputs. And he did that months before the show. And when in the stage he only push "Play". Like play the file inputs of a TAS from an emulator on a real game console. And to achieve this, he need a perfect control of information (Aura) emitted by his body and received by his 5 senses. The false explanation of "STAR" at the end was just to cover up the trick and also make the audience believe that he can make them draw anything if he want to. But this only work for "STAR". He can do for other drawing but for him "STAR" is the easiest one. Also don't be fooled by his humble appearance and made up accent. His Zetsu of nullify his Aura/Information is very impressive. But he is a great Nen Master. So the equivalent of Aura is information. if we rewrite the definition of Nen from Fandom and replacing Aura by information, we will get : Nen is a technique that allows a living being to use and manipulate their own information. For the perspective of other, our own information can be from multiple source : body, gesture, words, sound, eyes. But in our perspective, the real source of our information is unique : our Mind. Thats why Togashi explained Nen as Mind Force (念). To use and manipulate our own information, we need to use and manipulate the source, our state of Mind. And this can be done by big amount of meditation and very hard training or any hard work that use mental or physical abilities. This explain why some world's most famous and influential people have naturally learned how to manipulate their own information. They got through very hard experience in life and trained on very hard physical or mental situation. The information that they are genius come from the force of their Minds. To control our Mind we need to be self aware of it and study it. The Mind is composed to three different states : Emotion, Mental and Instinct. To Master a game like chess, we need first to nullifies our emotion after a good move or a bad move. Shroud our mental to think deeper, memorize better and learn faster. And Enhance our instincts by sensing the game and the future of opponent moves. We know in the Anime, Nen have 4 principe : Ten shroud the Aura (on the body). Zetsu nullifies the Aura. Ren intensify the Aura. Hatsu act/transmit the Aura. In real world equivalent, if we replace Aura with information, the 4 principle will be : Ten shroud the information. Zetsu nullifies the information. Ren intensify the information. Hatsu act/transmit the information. For Hatsu, we are already seeing it. We transmit information by words, writing, books, cars, computer, planes, building, music, art, programs, video games etc. They are all made up from information, the expression of the user or maker. And those who copy others, can never master Information. For Ten, Zetsu, Ren in real life are principle of the state of mind. To master the game of chess for example you need to first to Zetsu nullifies the Emotion. Ten shroud the Mental, and Ren Intensify the instinct. And with those principle you can use and manipulate your own information and make your Hatsu stronger. Komugi was too far better than Meruem in Gungi because she exceed in all of these principles of Nen in the game. She has a perfect Zetsu of emotion, she is emotionless when playing, not like Meruem where emotion took over him specially when he think he made a perfect move, the precocious feeling of achievement. And she has also a perfect Ten of Mental. materializing the board in her mind with an eidetic memory of all moves and positions and shroud all the mental in Gungi without thinking of anything else. And also a wonderful Ren, which made her sense the game and predict the unpredictable with her instinct and discover new strategies by acting randomly and make herself impossible to Meruem to predict. And this made her Hatsu on the game unreachable by Meruem. Even if he was the King of Ant the most powerful creature in the anime. The case of Gungi's Nen is the exact in our world. Only the game is the world and the players are us. And those who master Nen have a far better advantage. And now we know the the equivalent of Aura and 4 principle of Nen, we need to know the types of Nen in real life. In the Anime there is 6 type of Nen : Enhancer, Transmuter, Emitter, Conjurer, Manipulator and Specialist. The definition of those type are firmly linked to the definition of Aura in the anime as a Physical Energy, where every type has a physical propriety on the matter and manipulating the existence of matter in the void. But what caught my intention more than that, is Hisoka's Test of personality of each Type: Enhancers are determined and simple. Transmuters are whimsical and prone to deceit. Emitters are impatient, not detail-oriented, and quick to react in a volatile manner. Conjurers are typically high-strung or overly serious and stoic. Manipulators are logical people who advance at their own pace. Specialists are individualistic and charismatic. In real world, those type of Nen are the type of Mind. And there is not 6 but 9 types : Reformer, Helper, Achiever, Individualist, Investigator, Loyalist, Enthusiast, Challenger, Peacemaker. And like Hisoka, the Personality Test of those type are : Reformers are principled, purposeful, self-controlled, and perfectionistic. Helpers are generous, demonstrative, people-pleasing, and possessive. Achievers are adaptable, excelling, driven, and image-conscious. Individualists are expressive, dramatic, self-absorbed, and temperamental. Investigators are perceptive, innovative, secretive, and isolated. Loyalists are engaging, responsible, anxious, and suspicious. Enthusiasts are spontaneous, versatile, acquisitive, and scattered. Challengers are self-confident, decisive, willful, and confrontational. Peacemakers are receptive, reassuring, complacent, and resigned. In the Anime, We know that a Nen user have only one basic type that can be determined by the Water Divination, but he can learn some of the other types as complement according it's compatibility on the Hexagon. It's just the exact same In real world, a Nen user have only one basic type that can be determined by a test called the RHETI test. And he can learn some of the other types according it's compatibility on a crescent shape with 9 vertices; the Nenagram (Nonagram/Enneagram). Where each type is connected to two other types, and can learn one of the them beside his basic type, and that second type is called the Wing. The basic type dominate and the Wings complement the personality of Nen. And learning something that do not fit on your type may be difficult. And I think Togashi have made his inspiration of types of Nen exactly from this. It's explain why he chose the name Wing for the first Nen teacher of Gon and Killua. (for more info about RHETI : www.enneagraminstitute.com) Now, we have analyzed Nen in real life. And made up an equivalent of Ren, Ten, Zetsu, and the types of Hatsu. The question is how to learn all those techniques and made it in practice? We said that to master Nen we need a very hard training and big amount of meditation, more specifically a physical work and a mental work, to achieve a perfect control of our Nen/Information. In the Anime, Wing had explained that there is two way to get Initiated to Nen : The deliberate way and the aggressive way. The deliberate way is by training and meditation which it's the most common. And the aggressive way, is using the brute force. In our real word, the aggressive way or the bruce force is training and mediating simultaneously all day and all night and even when sleeping without a break. Because mastering Nen has a price, and that price is by doing that work, a work that merge the physical work and a mental work on one unique elemental work. Isaac Netero has already made a similar of this, a merging by adding praying which is mental work with a punch, a physical work into one work, and do it repeatedly many times for many years to achieve the incredible power he had on the anime. But we in real life will marge even more on a more simple single elemental work. And that work is : continuous muscle contraction. The continuous muscle contraction is both, a training of the strength and the endurance of the muscle, and a meditation to concentrate the mind into one unique point. And with this work its possible to learn Nen faster and master it better than most famous natural Nen user. In the body there is many muscle; arms, hands, legs, abs, face… etc. And for a beginner contracting continuously all the muscle at once is nearly impossible. That why we need to contract muscle by muscle. Each time after a muscle become a second nature we add another muscle in contraction. But we don't want to train only the muscle, we need also meditate to enforce our mind with it's 3 states; Emotion, Mental and Instinct. That's why the muscle order need to follow some specific steps; 3 steps to be exact for 3 groups of muscles. And here we are bringing the 3 principles of Nen in real life: Sen (Emotion), Ten (Mental) and Ren (Instinct). I will explain only the first principle Sen which is about Emotion. I'm not allowed yet to explain Ten and Ren in details. Sen is the most fundamental principle in Nen. Because to master our own behavior or our own information, we need to master our own Emotion, and try to nullify it at the maximum. When nullify our emotion, no one can read, provoke or manipulate us. And also it will bring a very calm state of mind. This state of mind can be trained by pure meditation in the deliberate way, but it can also be trained by Nen by continuously contracting muscle. The center of Emotion is the Heart, which is the source of heart rate, breathing, heart pressure and emotion. The muscles of Sen is the upper abdominal muscles which are the closest to the heart, and continuously contracting it, will make you very conscious of that singularity of heart and emotion and will make you easy to nullify. The principle of Sen is simple, keep contracting the Abs all day and all night and when sleep until it become your second nature. And then there is the last phase of mastering Sen is protecting the emotion from triggering effects and shocking events. For example, you are playing Five Nights at Freddy's with Sen, if someone jumpscare from behind, you should to max contracting Sen, and concentrate the strength on the heart to protect the emotion from the shock. I little like Ryo from the anime, enforce the aura in a region to block an incoming Kick. The same for other triggering example like: provocation, humiliation, boredom, fear, rage, temptation… Sen in short is nullify the emotion to the maximum and protecting it to maintain a calm state of mind. If you want more information about Sen, my Master Pakka Jodinshi have made a website in the Deep Web, where he shared the definition of Nen in real life and explained in details the first principle Sen to control Emotion. The two next technique Ten and Ren will be explained later in the website. The Tor link of the website is : wmjtj2j57mcvs7ms.onion if you don't have Tor Browser, you can go with any browser to : wmjtj2j57mcvs7ms.onion.link if you see only an image with no text, just turn your phone horizontally and the text will appear. I also made a subreddit for Nen Users who want to collaborate and share their experiences, stories and theories : /NenUsers Im Jins Leac, my pseudonym. I'm one of the students of Pakka Jodinshi, the pseudonym of my Master who taught me Nen. I will still be here to discuss both Togashi's Nen and real life equivalent Pakka's Nen. I will finish my post with some random funny facts and funny coincidences for those who are curious to know or want to laugh a little : @My username "9fRjigBqHQNwWyYi" was generated by a Quantum Random Number Generator (QRNG) without any intervention or manipulation by my side, it's the purest form of random and chaos. @Our pseudonyms are QRNG-crypted names made from our real names. (Public Key from Private Key but Quantum Randomized) But mine Jins Leac by coincidence appear to be similar to Ging Freecs the father or Gon. @We are descendant from a civilization know to be one of the oldest on earth, we are recognizable by our unique ethnicity, language, culture, calendar and alphabet. And Togashi's custom alphabet in Hunter x Hunter is very similar to ours. Did he get the inspiration from us? @Our ancestor lived in mountains, exactly in the region of Padokia where is Kukuro Mountains. Does Togashi was referring to us? @The actual Nen in real life was always a nameless technique. But thanks to Togashi, he gave it a name without knowing about it. Like how the Ant King was nameless until Netero call him Meruem. And when we first watched the Anime, the 2011 one, our jaws juste dropped on how the thing was exactly the same as the nameless technique. @There is a rumor that Christopher Columbus had a secret after discovering America. The secret leads to a hidden valuable treasure with some writing in our alphabet in it. Which means one from our civilization was there before him, but never returned. Similar to Don Freecs in the dark continent. @We decide to share the technique in English because its the most popular language. We go through leaning it only for the purpose of making Nen public. The same raison why Ryuk in Death Note explained the rules in English. @English is our 4th language. @According to the author of One Peace, Monkey D. Luffy have something called conquerer's palm, which is a straight line in the palm on his hand. Me and my Master have those line on both hands. Monkeys and Apes also have those lines. Thats why in medicine they call it Simian Lines. (And No, we are not Apes, we are Humans, and Darwin did everything wrong) @In Anime, All hands are simians, Edward Elric is not an exception. (watch the first opening of Fullmetal Alchemist Brotherhood) @Treasure Hunters in the region of Padokia are known to hunt very "rare" kids with special traits, because Demons in that region are thirsty of their blood. One of those trait is a straight line in their hands. Demons promise to give the location of a valuable treasure to anyone who sacrifice those "rare" kids to them. Its similar to Chimera Ants hunting rare humans. And many innocent hands got cut and eyes got pulled to be traded between those evil Hunters. Similar to the eyes of Kuruta Clan (Thanks God we are still alive in one piece) @If you ask a Treasure Hunter the reason why they hunt those "rare" kids, they will tell you that those kids are not born human, they where exchanged when they came to life with a Djin/Demon children. And the Demons want their blood to claim their children and set them free (Well done Demons! Your kind made up a very clever lie!) And because of that filthy lie those hunters dont see us as normal humans but as children of Djins/Demons. Like how people of Konoha saw Naruto when he were a kid. @In the region of Padokia, All towns begin with "X" and end with "X" in our alphabet. That's why Pakka chose "XX" as our sign in the website on top of his QR code bitcoin address. Similar to the sign of Hunter Association. @The red shapes in the QR code was to make the code recognizable at first glance with the "+" triangle and the "J" shape. And the color red between the "XX" was to lock it and suggest that the QR need to have those red shapes. If anyone want to steal the content of the website and add his own QR code, he need to remove or modify all the image. And this make us easy to recognize a thief from a supporter. As I said before, a copier will never Master Nen. @Initiation to Nen are similar to the Sayan Transformation in Dragon Ball series. First transformation in the initiation to Sen (turning on Sen). Second transformation is the initiation to Ten (turning on Ten in addition to Sen). And Third transformation is the initiation to Ren (turning on Ren in addition to Sen and Ten). And the Ultra Instinct Transformation is "The Zone" enhanced by Nen. And I will add the True Ultra Instinct, is when a group of Nen users are synchronized in "The True Zone" like in Kuroko no Basket. @The fundamental body organs of Nen are : Heart (Sen, Emotion), Pineal Gland (Ten, Mental) and Spinal Cord (Ren, Instinct) @Ten's muscles are known to be the most useless muscles in the human body @Ren's muscles are known to be the most useful muscles in the human body @When Netero was playing the ball game with Gon. Gon want to kick Netero's stomach with his head the second time in a row. Netero had two choices: Keep contracting the abs and Gon will get hurt. Or relax the abs and he will be the one who will get hurt. That mean Netero was continuously contracting his abs during the entire game. He was using the actual Sen. @Machi of the Phantom Troupe also used Sen to protect her heart from Killua's piercing hand. Similar to the max contracting Sen to protect emotion from outside triggering effect. @Neferpitou after attacking Kito arm, and staring at Gon and Killua with a wide open eyes, she used the actual Ten. @When Adult Gon was charging up the Jajanken to punch the falling Neferpitou from the the sky, he used the actual Ren. @The one who discovered Nen was at night, he had a huge pain on the stomach due to some shocking events he experienced. The pain got so big for him that he fall unconscious. but his body subconsciously contracted very strong the abs on the stomach to reduce the pain. And after he regain consciousness. He felts the abs strongly contracted with no pain and he felt a weird and very different state of mind. Thats how he learned the nameless technique of Nen. It's similar how the Ant Rammot learned Nen, after the huge pain in his stomach due to Gon's punch. @The effect of Ten is very similar to the NZT-48 pill scene of the movie Limitless by Neil Burger. If the pill unlock 100% of brain abilities for a brief moment. Nen unlock 100% of human abilities permanently if wanted. @Patrick Janes from The Mentalist is the perfect image of a Nen Master in real life, He know by the deliberate way how to Sen, Ten and Ren. His behavior and deduction dont begin from Sen to Ren, like commun people do, acting with emotion at first and confirm with instinct at the end. But the inverse. He begin from Ren by acting randomly according to his instinct like a little child, Ten by analyzing why he behaved that way and the reaction of people and environment, connecting dots and find the best explanations and the solution, and Sen by Gyo the emotions of others to confirm the solution. @Actual Nen is very similar to One For All from Bokuno no Hero Academia. @We think that the secret of Saitama's power from One Punch Man is the actual Nen. @Nen is the number 9, Sen is the number 1000, Ten is the number 10 and Ren is the Random number. The instinct from Ren is always random. @I just noticed that my Quantum Random username begin with a 9. A pure coincidence. @Sen is the color Red, Ten is the color Blue, Ren is the color Yellow, And Nen is the color Vanta. @If you turn the website upside down, you will see many expression of a frog (Another pure coincidence! It's Pepe the frog!) @At the year 0 in our calendar, is the year when one from our civilization won against Egypt and become Pharaoh. Its the most influential and memorable moment in the history of our civilization. @Nen is The Father Of Gods in the ancient Egypt, the name Nen means "Primeval Waters". Which is equivalent to "Primeval Chaos of Information" and we humans, are users of that information. We are represented by The God Kek a frog headed man that make Memes. In its hieroglyphs is a man in front of a computer connected to the Memes Magic (Information). @Nen is the Father of Kek the God of Darkness and Chaos, Kek is also known as The Bringer of Light. @The letter "K" in our alphabet have the shape very close to a Frog on the side. @The letter "N" in our alphabet have the shape of the Stick of The Father of Gods Nen. @If Illuminati is symbolized by a triangle with a single barely open eye of a white men in the center. Nen is symbolized by a circle with two wide open eyes of a frog in the center. @In the Light, white is the supreme color, in the Darkness, all colors are equal. @Frogs are the only species that can recognize colors in the Darkness. @Light is centralized with one leader at the source, Darkness is decentralized and there is no leader. @In the Light everything is exposed, in the Darkness everything is anonymous. @A Star is the symbol of Light, A Crescent Sun/Moon Eclipse is the symbol of Darkness. @Arabic is our 2nd language @In Arabic translation, Nen is "ن", Sen is "س", Ten is "تين" and Ren is "غ". All of them are made from Crescent shapes. @Nen in Arabic is an acronym of Primeval Ink. @Kek in Arabic is an acronym of Primeval Pen, represented by "ق" the first letter of Pen. "ق" It also linked to the name of the sound of Frogs. @In Arabic translation, Meme is "م" the first letter of Water. @We are Humans using the Information. @We are Pen using the Ink. @We are Frogs using the Water. @We are Kek using the Nen. @Bruce Lee advise : "Empty your mind, be formless, shapeless, like Memes. When you pour Memes in a cup, it becomes the cup. When you pour Memes in a bottle, it becomes the bottle. When you pour Memes in a teapot, it becomes the teapot. Memes can flow and it can crash. Be Dank Memes my friend.". @If I'm Yugi from Yu-Gi-Oh!, I will see Pakka as the Yami (Darkness) Pharaoh who will bring the Darkness to put out the Light of the Illuminati's pyramid. (And No, Pakka is not some ancient Spirit, he has his own body) @If I'm Naruto, I will see Pakka as the 9-Tailed Demon Fox. And the funny part is we can summon frogs. (And No, Pakka is not a Demon, it's a normal human like me, and we are 100% human) @If Satan is the number 666, Nen is the number 999. Add one you got Sen, do the cubic root you got Ten, Divide by zero you got Ren. @If Satan is symbolized by an inverted Pentacle with a head of a Goat, Nen users (Kek) are symbolized by a Nenagram with a full body Frog. @If Satan claim the Light and Control, Nen users (Kek) claim the Darkness and Chaos. @Pure Randomness and Chaos is when patterns and orders occurs. @Pure Emptiness and Void is when virtual particles appears and disappear. @Pure Darkness is when virtual lights flashes and extinguish. @Quantum Randomness from Void fluctuation is the Purest Waters from the fountain of The Father of Gods Nen. @Here is 999 milliliters of Pure Primeval Water from The Father of Gods Nen's fountain : OxPjqj0VX0oIMvZwdXTYmMZMMFiIyrmhg0ulVLvADW1iVIWkZPQLlU3eV5wNnAvO51Iy6FRGjGRun9w3PIWUgfPOieHcT8dzPfAuOygGY9XUlVDyCi_ue3yqvLeh906s8FB1mzkIbMCpEO902lgcA5onhM94z2RQpVQbDYY8EoNJnvxA8DzDY8C6NHL3sNCmwiVgWkh9k0X3PbNJX9wBVMqiETFNZ4gU2fYM1NOsOW6NYYPF2AH8Vlnc9Y_TjS37wESZtoPKFlaP1EDBpWvFdQ4SxuJ6nVo_Oo8qAnl4yFbO3oH3wfwpsMFcDW6tt6I9LZTFJqAsoXRdyazrBo2uMmpBRod8LfTd7Ji1BheTUXIyw3Li62Eg5C98j4FQO70LutzMiPTZENNZ7LYVmsdKsPt6cOGetqv5YzcufWwUw26qpEVMH4o8ade75hN9_T_eHdKT4xIw7w_Q_SYfTSEYgxRj2RC4nSHNvuG9zdvS71XA4y9TeobRHE6NhB5CSpvA5fNgDkHNT1oEhI7O0x0atUWSWpA1WHx3gaAW5xQyCsQtN2uH8c1xhyJBt9D04bGk_NtAS8kv99h6XCfmExLtZmmlzls8gqVbCsytI8o4Hg11VC7mU1tQD69mXFhM4ip7qzoTnc7YZk44IWSviFu6PwGVW828odKHsx7WYsNZeLZCyUGxcfQsNDpHyi3qodlPKWZrkL0lrorxPCnpQF9ZUhaunV638ynKVSD_XUd6eeBoZeNdvrJDVH1Q_btv95_qtq2ceWren5bMBYzoiY4P9BPYsvylEmDSEWtq3BleLSXbvkc3XOlxW72obrJhJoeFF5AaoQKoheTD4lgBGPtzkRJt6UM9w52luvkhDZJo6yki08umpAZDHDtDmBfZ156BqiqVxTitxcbZuMrjqmbSG7grRzUDE1J2YOgaV1c0b_ve0TrSZFebIkDMkJThSGXSfqgwBlEi4gtC2ajZKmWbl0RmbVzsWqUQ9DIpN @The name of our civilization also mean Chaos, Savage, Uncivilized, Heathen, Outlandish and Insensate. The perfect meaning of Kek and Nen. @All the region of Padokia was banned from 4chan. We want to free Kekistan from Normies. Please help us bring Nen to Kekistan. @Our world is a real life MMO, we called it World Of Nencraft or just Nencraft. Me and Pakka are at level 25 halfway to 26 on Sen and Ten. For Ren, I'm at level 16 (Im in a rest of Ren) and He is at level 22. We need more people joining the game and leveling up to the highest. Then work decentralizedly to beat the Final Boss Illuminati and finally beat the game that no one has ever beat it in Nenillion years. The problem is the Final Boss use Cheat Codes far more powerful than Death Note, which is Black Magic that use Probability Manipulation through a Rule of "Satan can not be killed" in the game program. A Black Magic is an injected instruction in the game program "If this dont happen, Satan will die", and the game program chose always to make the magic happen. Its very similar to No Game No Life (episode 1), where Sora beat the women in Card with the 8th game pelde : "Being caught cheating during a game is grounds for an instant loss". And Illuminati know how to Abuse that. @The acronym of World Of Nencraft, is WON. Another raison to beat the game. @As said in Undertale : Anime is REAL!. Our real world will soon be the best Anime you have ever seen. @In short from everything above, If Illuminati or Satan or The Devil or The Beast or whatever put voluntary subliminal messages on the centralized mainstream medias. Decentralized Anime, Manga, Video Games and Internet Memes Culture (Cult of Kek, Egyptian Gods, Pepe the frog, etc) had by the effect of chaos and pure coincidence clues that leads to Nen. @This is my third attempt posting in this sub. First attempt got detected as a spam, The second attempt got deleted by Pariston with the tag "Need to be directly related", and I hope in this attempt I made the post related enough so the Zodiacs can be happy. Or maybe they are against the idea of bringing Nen to the public?
Background: I've been reading about Brain Wallets last few days, wanting to make a secure wallet. Here, here, here, and here. After reading the above and a few other articles, I decided to make a brainwallet. Steps taken: 1) On my Windows 8, Internet-connect PC, downloaded bitaddress.org to USB Key 2) Plugged USB Key into non-Internet connected Linux (Ubuntu) machine 3) Firefox Private Browsing mode to open bitaddress.org off USB Key 4) Brain Wallet Enter Passphrase (~50 characters including capital letters, small letters, numbers, symbols, phrases that only I would know) 5) Pressed "View" 6) Wrote down the address generated, went back to my separate Windows machine, and sent some BTC to it. Questions: a) Can I feel pretty safe about my wallet? b) If I used Linux command line to SHA256sum my aforementioned 50+ character password before I put it into bitaddress.org (using these steps), would that make things any safemore secure? Because bitaddress.org SHA256sum's whatever you put in, is that now "doubly hashed"? Does that help at all? c) Are there ways to turn a SHA256sum into a Bitcoin private key without having to trust bitcoinaddress.org? Or should I even worry about that? d) I've heard people mention a "Side-Channel Attack". Can someone ELI5? Is that a possible vulnerability against bitcoinaddress.org? Or Bitcoin in general? Something else? Or no reason to worry at all? Goal: Apart from wanting to protect some of my own coins, which are now sitting in a web wallet, I feel like BrainWallets in general are getting a lot of bad rap. Some education/answers would go a long way in people becoming comfortable using them and taking advantage of their potential and benefits. Any answers/thoughts/links to other resources are greatly appreciated.
Reddit (stylized as reddit, /ˈrɛdɪt/) is a social news aggregation, web content rating, and discussion website. Reddit's registered community members can submit content, such as text posts or direct links.
1 Description 1.1 Site 1.2 Users 1.3 Subreddits 1.3.1 IAmA and AMA 1.3.2 /science 1.3.3 April Fools subreddits 184.108.40.206 The Button 220.127.116.11 Robin 2 History 3 Technology 4 Demographics 5 Community and culture 5.1 Philanthropic efforts 5.2 Commercial activity 5.3 Reddit effect 5.4 "Restoring Truthiness" campaign 5.5 Controversies 5.5.1 2010 5.5.2 2011 5.5.3 2013 5.5.4 2014 5.5.5 2015 5.5.6 2016 6 Other 7 See also 8 References 9 External links
Description Site The site is a collection of entries submitted by its registered users, essentially a bulletin board system. The name "Reddit" is a play-on-words with the phrase "read it", i.e., "I read it on Reddit." The site's content is divided into numerous categories, and 49 such categories, or "default subreddits", are visible on the front page to new users and those who browse the site without logging in to an account. As of May 2016, these include: Category Subreddits Educational News, Science, Space, DataIsBeautiful, TodayILearned, WorldNews Entertainment Creepy, Documentaries, Gaming, ListenToThis, Movies, Music, NoSleep, Sports, Television, Videos Discussion-based AskReddit, AskScience, Books, ExplainLikeImFive, History, IAmA, TwoXChromosomes Humolight-hearted Funny, InternetIsBeautiful, Jokes, NotTheOnion, ShowerThoughts, TIFU, UpliftingNews Image sharing Art, Aww, EarthPorn, Gifs, MildlyInteresting, OldSchoolCool, PhotoshopBattles, Pics Self-improvement DIY, Food, GetMotivated, LifeProTips, PersonalFinance, Philosophy, WritingPrompts Technology Futurology, Gadgets Meta Announcements, Blog
Note: There are over 11,400 active subreddits with a default set of 50 subreddits as of February 2016.
When items (links or text posts) are submitted to a subreddit, the users, called "redditors", can vote for or against them (upvote/downvote). Each subreddit has a front page that shows newer submissions that have been rated highly. Redditors can also post comments about the submission, and respond back and forth in a conversation-tree of comments; the comments themselves can also be upvoted and downvoted. The front page of the site itself shows a combination of the highest-rated posts out of all the subreddits a user is subscribed to. Front-page rank – for both the general front page and for individual subreddits – is determined by the age of the submission, positive ("upvoted") to negative ("downvoted") feedback ratio and the total vote-count. Dozens of submissions cycle through these front pages daily. The site's logo and mascot is a line drawing of an alien nicknamed "Snoo". Subreddits often use themed variants of Snoo relevant to the subject. Although most of the site functions like a bulletin board or message board, each subreddit has the option of having an associated wiki that can provide supplementary material like instructions, recommended reading, or collaboration for real-life events. Users Registering an account with Reddit is free and does not require an email address to complete. As of June 2015, there were 36 million user accounts. When logged in, Reddit users (known as redditors) have the ability to vote on submissions and comments to increase or decrease their visibility and submit links and comments. Users can also create their own subreddit on a topic of their choosing, and interested users can add it to their frontpage by subscribing to it. For example, as of May 2015, the Wikipedia subreddit – subtitled "the most interesting pages on Wikipedia" – has over 151,000 subscribers. Reddit comments and submissions are occasionally abbreviated and peppered with terms that are understood within (and in many cases also outside) the Reddit community, ranging from OP (for "original poster" – the user who posted the submission being commented upon) to NSFW (for "not safe for work" – indicating the post has graphic or sexually explicit content). Users earn "post karma" and "comment karma" for submitting text posts, link posts, and comments, which accumulate as point values on their user profile. "Post karma" refers to karma points received from text and link posts, while "comment karma" refers to karma points received from comments. Users may also be gifted "Reddit gold" if another user has well received the comment or post, generally due to humorous or high quality content; this process is known as "gilding." Reddit has also created a system of points called "creddits". Reddit gold "creddits" are like gift certificates: each creddit you have allows you to give one month of Reddit gold to someone else. The points do not lead to a prize as they are meant to stand in as a badge of honor for the user among their peers, although redditors have attempted to redeem their points before. Reddit also allows submissions that do not link externally. These are called "self posts" or "text submissions". Many discussion-based subreddits allow only text-only submissions such as "AskReddit" – where users are only allowed to pose broad, discussion based questions to the community at large. Self posts previously did not accumulate karma points for the submitter, but as of July, 2016, these text only posts generate karma. Mister Splashy Pants logo used on November 27, 2007 Reddit communities occasionally coordinate Reddit-external projects such as skewing polls on other websites, such as in 2007 when Greenpeace allowed web users to decide the name of a humpback whale it was tracking. Reddit users voted en masse to name the whale "Mr. Splashy Pants", and Reddit administrators further encouraged this by changing the site logo to a whale during the voting. In December of that year, Mister Splashy Pants was announced as the winner of the competition. Within the site, redditors commemorate their "cake day" once a year, which is the anniversary of the day the user's account was first created. The "cake day" offers no special benefit, except that a small icon representing a slice of cake appears next to that user's name for 24 hours. Redditors can "friend" one another, which gives a redditor quick access to posting and comments of their friend list. The commenting system and friend system, along with a certain "Reddit ethos" (called reddiquette on Reddit), lend Reddit aspects of a social networking service, though not to the extent of Facebook, Google+, and other websites aimed at providing social networking services. The Reddit community also socializes at meetups held at local parks and bars around the world, and many localized subreddits for local in-person meetings exist. Subreddits Reddit entries are organized into areas of interest called "subreddits". Originally, the front page was the "main-reddit", and other areas were "subreddits". There is now no longer a single main-reddit. Instead, there are now 50 "default subreddits" dealing with topics such as books, television, and music, and thousands of additional non-default subreddits. The default subreddits are the 50 subreddits which are first recommended to new users to select from to appear on, or via their customizable top menu bars. All new users are initially automatically "subscribed to" the 50 default subreddits, but can then customize their "subscriptions." Any registered user who has maintained an account for 31 days or more may create a non-default subreddit. There are over 11,400 active total subreddits to peruse, including the default set of 50 subreddits as of February 2016. The site has a default "Front Page" which contains staff selected popular articles, and also an "All Page" which contains only the very top ranked article/ subreddits as ranked by readers themselves, and which page is accessible via an "All" link at the top of the "Front Page." In an interview with Memeburn, Reddit GM, Martin noted that the platform's "approach is to give the community moderators or curators as much control as possible so that they can shape and cultivate the type of communities they want". IAmA and AMA One of the most popular subreddits is IAmA ("I Am A") where a user may post "AMAs" (for "Ask Me Anything"), or similarly "AMAAs" (for "Ask Me Almost/Absolutely Anything") – prompts for others to ask questions about any topic. AMAs are open to all Reddit users, and use the site's comment system for both questions and answers; it is similar to a press conference but online. This subreddit was founded in May 2009. From 2013 to 2015, Victoria Taylor assisted reddit's volunteer community in presenting interviews. A number of notable individuals have participated in the IAmA subreddit, including United States President Barack Obama (while campaigning for the 2012 election), Dave Grohl, Madonna, Chris Hadfield (who answered questions from the International Space Station), Bill Gates, Ron Paul, Stephen Colbert, Psy, Enya, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Rachel Maddow, Renée Fleming, M. Shadows, Louis C.K., Roger Federer, Larry King, Philip Zimbardo, Bill Nye, Stan Lee, John Mather, David Copperfield, Paul Krugman, Danny Boyle, rapper J. Cole, Al Gore, Roger Ebert, Michael Bolton, Gary Johnson, Lawrence Krauss, Jill Stein, Kevin Rudd, Julie Benz, Amanda Palmer, Tim Ferriss, Gordon Ramsay, Peter Dinklage, Chandra Wickramasinghe, Neil deGrasse Tyson, and Bernie Sanders. Donald Trump (during his 2016 Presidential Campaign) had an AMA on /The Donald subreddit. As of April 2015, Barack Obama's AMA is the highest rated on the site; the increased traffic brought down many parts of the website when the AMA occurred on August 29, 2012. Celebrities participating in IAmAs have seen both positive and negative responses. Woody Harrelson's AMA was criticized after Harrelson declined to answer questions that were unrelated to the movie Rampart he was promoting. In contrast, rapper Snoop Dogg attracted 1.6 million page views after conducting an AMA that provided several candid responses to the community's questions. Other than Harrelson's, Bollywood actress Priyanka Chopra's AMA was criticized for evasiveness when she focused on promoting her upcoming album to the detriment of other questions. A particularly well received AMA of 2014 was that of Peter Dinklage, best known for his role as Tyrion Lannister in the HBO drama series Game of Thrones. Redditors attribute the thread's success to the thoroughness of his responses and the fact that he stayed online much longer than he was expected to so he could spend more time with his fans. The actor departed by commenting:
This feels like being interviewed by a hundred thousand news anchors at once! But much friendlier anchors...who seem to know their material...I really appreciate everyone's enthusiasm and questions. I tried to move another engagement to make more time but it's really hard during shoots. I am going to try to answer a few more short ones now. And remember: If you see me on the street and want a photo, ask! It's just weird when your kid asks for directions.
On July 2, 2015, hundreds of subreddits, including several with over a million subscribers, were set to private by their respective moderators after Reddit's director of talent, Victoria Taylor, was dismissed. Sources close to Reddit cited an increased focus on commercializing AMAs as the most likely reason. /science File:American Chemical Society - What Chemists Do - Nathan Allen.webmPlay media Nathan Allen speaks about /science to the American Chemical Society Main article: /science /science is an Internet forum on Reddit where the community of participants discuss science topics. A popular feature of the forum is "Ask me Anything" (AMA) public discussions. As of 2014, /science attracted 30,000-100,000 visitors per day, making it the largest community-managed science forum and an attractive place to host discussions. April Fools subreddits The Button Main article: The Button (Reddit) On April Fools' Day 2015, a social experiment was launched in the form of a subreddit called "thebutton". It featured a button and a 60-second countdown timer. User accounts created before that day were eligible to participate. A user could only ever click the button once, or opt not to click it. If a user clicked the button the timer was globally reset to 60 seconds, and the user's "flair" (an icon next to the user's name) changed color. Colors were assigned based on a gradient from purple to red with purple signifying up to 60 seconds and red as low as 0 seconds. The countdown prematurely reached zero several times due to technical problems but eventually expired without further problems on June 5, 2015, after which the subreddit was archived. Robin On April Fools' Day 2016, a social experiment was launched in the form of a chat widget named Robin. After clicking the "Robin" button, an IRC-like chat window was initially opened with one other redditor and giving a certain time to pick between three options, "Grow," "Stay" and "Abandon". "Grow" would join the chat with another group, "Stay" would close the group chat and create a subreddit with that group as moderators and "Abandon" would close the group chat and everyone goes back to a group of two. History Further information: Timeline of Reddit Co-founder Alexis Ohanian speaking in 2009 In June 2005, Reddit was founded in Medford, Massachusetts by Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian, both 22-year-old graduates of the University of Virginia. The team expanded to include Christopher Slowe in November 2005. Between November 2005 and January 2006 Reddit merged with Aaron Swartz's company Infogami, and Swartz became an equal owner of the resulting parent company, Not A Bug. Condé Nast Publications, owner of Wired, acquired Reddit on October 31, 2006, and the team moved to San Francisco. In January 2007, Swartz was fired. By the end of 2008, the team had grown to include Erik Martin, Jeremy Edberg, David King, and Mike Schiraldi. In 2009, Huffman and Ohanian moved on to form Hipmunk, recruiting Slowe and King shortly thereafter. In May 2010, Reddit was named in Lead411's "2010 Hottest San Francisco Companies" list. In July 2010, after explosive traffic growth, Reddit introduced Reddit Gold, offering new features for a price of $3.99/month or $29.99/year. Reddit Gold adds a number of features to the interface, including the ability to display more comments on a page, access to the private "lounge" subreddit, and notifications whenever one's username is mentioned in a comment. It's also possible to endow comments or submissions of other users and thereby give a gold membership to them as an anonymous present. On September 6, 2011, Reddit became operationally independent of Condé Nast, now operating as a separate subsidiary of its parent company, Advance Publications. On January 11, 2012, Reddit announced that it would be participating in a 12-hour sitewide blackout in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act. The blackout occurred on January 18 and coincided with the blackouts of Wikipedia and several other websites. In May 2012, Reddit joined the Internet Defense League, a group formed to organize future protests. On February 14, 2013, Reddit began accepting the digital currency bitcoin for its Reddit Gold subscription service through a partnership with bitcoin payment processor Coinbase. In October 2014, Reddit announced Redditmade, a service which allowed moderators to create merchandise for their subreddits. Redditmade closed in February 2015. In November 2014, Chief Executive Yishan Wong resigned and co-founder Ohanian returned as the full-time executive chairman. Ellen Pao, Reddit's business and partnerships strategist became the interim chief executive. On July 10, 2015, Pao resigned and was replaced by Steve Huffman as CEO. In October 2015, Reddit announced a news portal called Upvoted, designed to broaden the reach of Reddit as a standalone site featuring editorial content from Reddit users. In April 2016, Reddit launched a new blocking tool in an attempt to curb online harassment. The tool allows a user to hide posts and comments from selected redditors in addition to blocking private messages from those redditors. The option to block a redditor is done by clicking a button in the inbox. Technology Reddit was originally written in Common Lisp but was rewritten in Python in December 2005. The reasons given for the switch were wider access to code libraries and greater development flexibility. The Python web framework that former Reddit employee Swartz developed to run the site, web.py, is now available as an open-source project. On June 18, 2008, Reddit became an open source project. With the exception of the anti-spam/cheating portions, all of the code and libraries written for Reddit became freely available on GitHub. As of November 10, 2009, Reddit uses Pylons as its web framework. As of November 10, 2009, Reddit has decommissioned their physical servers and migrated to Amazon Web Services. Reddit uses PostgreSQL as their primary datastore and is slowly moving to Apache Cassandra, a column-oriented datastore. It uses RabbitMQ for offline processing, HAProxy for load balancing and memcached for caching. In early 2009, Reddit started using jQuery. On June 7, 2010, Reddit staff launched a revamped mobile interface featuring rewritten CSS, a new color scheme, and a multitude of improvements. On July 21, 2010, Reddit outsourced the Reddit search engine to Flaptor, who used its search product IndexTank. As of July 12, 2012, Reddit uses Amazon CloudSearch. There are several unofficial applications that use the Reddit API in the Google Play store, and F-Droid repository. Examples include: Reddit is Fun, Andreddit, F5, BaconReader, Reddit Sync and an Android tablet specific application called Reddita. There are also several Windows apps used to access Reddit, including unofficial Reddit apps such as ReddHub and Reddit To Go!. An unofficial desktop application Reditr exists that is compatible with Windows, OS X, Linux and ChromeOS. There are several Reddit applications for iOS. These include Karma, Upvote, iReddit, iPad-specific applications such as Reddzine and Biscuit, and, until April 2016, Alien Blue. In September 2014, an official mobile application for browsing AMA (Ask Me Anything) threads was released for the iOS and Android platforms under the name Ask me Anything. In October 2014, Alien Blue was acquired by Reddit and became the official iOS Reddit app. In April 2016, Reddit released an official application called Reddit: The Official App, which is available on Google Play and the iOS App Store, and Alien Blue was removed from the App Store in favor of the new app. Demographics According to Reddit's Audience and Demographics page, as of December 2015, 53% of redditors are male and 54% are from the United States. In 2013 Pewinternet.org stated that 6% of all American adult Internet users have used Reddit; that males were twice as likely to be redditors as females were; and that Reddit's largest age bracket was between the ages of 18 and 29. Community and culture The website is known for its open nature and diverse user community that generate its content. Its demographics allows for wide-ranging subject areas, or main subreddits, that receive much attention, as well as the ability for smaller subreddits to serve more niche purposes. For example, the University of Reddit, a subreddit that exists to communally teach, emerged from the ability to enter and leave the online forum, the "classroom", at will, and classes ranging from computer science to music, to fine art theory exist. The unique possibilities that subreddits provide create new opportunities for raising attention and fostering discussion across many areas. In gaining popularity in terms of unique users per day, Reddit has been a platform for many to raise publicity for a number of causes. And with that increased ability to garner attention and a large audience, users can use one of the largest communities on the Internet for new, revolutionary, and influential purposes. Its popularity has enabled users to take unprecedented advantage of such a large community. Its innovative socially ranked rating and sorting system drives a method that is useful for fulfilling certain goals of viewership or simply finding answers to interesting questions. User sentiments about the website's function and structure include feelings about the breadth and depth of the discussions on Reddit and how the site makes it easy to discover new and interesting items. Almost all of the user reviews on Alexa.com, which rates Reddit's monthly unique traffic rating 125th in the United States, mention Reddit's "good content" as a likable quality. However, others raise the negative aspects of the potential for Reddit's communities to possess a "hive mind" of sorts, embodying some negative aspects of group interaction theories like crowd psychology and collective consciousness. Philanthropic efforts Reddit has been known as the instigator of several charity projects, some short and others long-term, in order to benefit others. A selection of major events are outlined below:
In early October 2010, a story was posted on Reddit about a seven-year-old girl, Kathleen Edward, who was in the advanced stages of Huntington's disease. The girl's neighbors were taunting her and her family. Redditors banded together and gave the girl a shopping spree at Tree Town Toys, a toy store local to the story owned by a Reddit user. In early December 2010, members of the Christianity subreddit decided to hold a fundraiser and later members of the atheism subreddit decided to give some friendly competition, cross-promoting fundraising drives for Doctors Without Borders and World Vision's Clean Water Fund, respectively. Later, the Islam subreddit joined in, raising money for Islamic Relief. In less than a week, the three communities (as well as the Reddit community at large) raised over $50,000. Most of this was raised by the atheism subreddit, though the smaller Christianity subreddit had a higher average donation amount per subscriber. A similar donation drive in 2011 saw the atheism subreddit raise over $200,000 for charity. Reddit started the largest Secret Santa program in the world, which is still in operation to date. For the 2010 Holiday season, 92 countries were involved in the Secret Santa program. There were 17,543 participants, and $662,907.60 was collectively spent on gift purchases and shipping costs. In 2014, about 200,000 users from 188 countries participated. Several Celebrities have participated in the program, including Bill Gates and Snoop Dogg. Eventually, the Secret Santa program expanded to various other occasions through Redditgifts. Members from Reddit donated over $600,000 to DonorsChoose in support of Stephen Colbert's March to Keep Fear Alive. The donation spree broke previous records for the most money donated to a single cause by the Reddit community and resulted in an interview with Colbert on Reddit. Reddit users donated $185,356 to Direct Relief for Haiti after an earthquake devastated the nation in January 2010. Reddit users donated over $70,000 to the Faraja Orphanage in the first 24 hours to help secure the orphanage after intruders robbed and attacked one of the volunteers, who survived a strike to the head from a machete. In October 2012, "Shitty Watercolour", a popular Redditor known for posting watercolor paintings on the website, streamed live a 12-hour painting session on YouTube to raise money for charity: water, a non-profit organization which aims to provide potable drinking water in developing countries. Redditors donated a minimum of $10 to have a photo of their choice painted in a 5 by 5 centimetres (2.0 by 2.0 in) square section of large sheets of paper. The paint-a-thon raised $2,700. In February 2014, Reddit announced it would be donating 10% of its annual ad revenue to non-profits voted upon by its users. Reddit continued this policy for 2015, donating $82,765 each to Electronic Frontier Foundation, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Doctors Without Borders, Erowid Center, Wikimedia Foundation, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, NPR, Free Software Foundation, Freedom From Religion Foundation, and Tor Project. In response to the 2015 Nepal Earthquake, redditors raised more than $145,000 for Direct Relief and more than $110,000 for MAP International.
Commercial activity In February 2013, Betabeat published a post that recognized the influx of multi-national corporations like Costco, Taco Bell, Subaru, and McDonald's posting branded content on Reddit that was made to appear as if it was original content from legitimate Reddit users. Reddit's former Director of Communications noted that while a large number of Chief Marketing Officers want to "infiltrate the reddit community on behalf of their brand," she emphasized that "self-promotion is frowned upon" and the site is "100 percent organic." She recommended that advertisers design promotions that "spark conversations and feedback." She recommended that businesses use AMAs to get attention for public figures but cautioned "It is important to approach AMAs carefully and be aware that this may not be a fit for every project or client." Nissan ran a successful Branded content promotion offering users free gifts to publicize a new car, though the company was later ridiculed for suspected astroturfing when the CEO only answered puff piece questions on the site. Taylor described these situations as "high risk" noting "We try hard to educate people that they have to treat questions that may seem irreverent or out of left field the same as they would questions about the specific project they are promoting." Reddit's users are more privacy-conscious than on other websites, using tools like AdBlock and proxies, and they hate "feeling manipulated by brands" but respond well to "content that begs for intelligent viewers and participants." Lauren Orsini writes in ReadWrite that "Reddit's huge community is the perfect hype machine for promoting a new movie, a product release, or a lagging political campaign" but "very specific set of etiquette. Redditors don't want to advertise for you, they want to talk to you." Journalists have used the site as a basis for stories, though they are advised by the site's policies to respect that "reddit's communities belong to their members" and to seek proper attribution for people's contributions. Reddit announced that they would begin using VigLink to redirect affiliate links in June 2016. Reddit effect Main article: Slashdot effect Also known as the "Slashdot effect", the Reddit effect occurs when a smaller website has a high influx of traffic after being linked to on Reddit. It is also called the "Reddit Hug of Death" among the website's users. Because Reddit is such a large site, the traffic is immense and can easily crash smaller sites. In order for users to see crashed websites, several Reddit bots have been created that take a snapshot of the website before large amounts of traffic flood the affected website. "Restoring Truthiness" campaign As a response to Glenn Beck's August 28, 2010, Restoring Honor rally (heavily promoted by him in his Fox News broadcasts during the summer), in September 2010 Reddit users started a movement to persuade Stephen Colbert to have a counter-rally in Washington, D.C. The movement, which came to be called "Restoring Truthiness", was started by user mrsammercer, in a post where he described waking up from a dream in which Stephen Colbert was holding a satirical rally in D.C. He writes, "This would be the high water mark of American satire. Half a million people pretending to suspend all rational thought in unison. Perfect harmony. It'll feel like San Francisco in the late 60s, only we won't be able to get any acid." The idea resonated with the Reddit community, which launched a campaign to bring the event to life. Over $600,000 was raised for charity to gain the attention of Colbert. The campaign was mentioned on-air several times, and when the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear was held in Washington, D.C. on October 30, 2010, thousands of redditors made the journey. During a post-rally press conference, Reddit co-founder Ohanian asked, "What role did the Internet campaign play in convincing you to hold this rally?" Jon Stewart responded by saying that, though it was a very nice gesture, the two had already thought of the idea prior and the deposit on using the National Mall was already paid during the summer, so it acted mostly as a "validation of what we were thinking about attempting". In a message to the Reddit community, Colbert later added, "I have no doubt that your efforts to organize and the joy you clearly brought to your part of the story contributed greatly to the turnout and success." See also General
Crowdsourcing Internet culture PTT Bulletin Board System Social bookmarking Unidan Web 2.0 iconInternet portal
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Explain it like I’m Five – Bitcoin Mining Difficulty Level. by Gautham. 4 years ago. in News. Reading Time: 3min read The Bitcoin difficulty level recently increased by 7.09% recently. What is difficulty level and why is is important? Bitcoin is probably the first decentralized, distributed open source digital currency protocol to gain massive adoption. No sooner the concept of digital ... ↑ Explain a Bitcoin hash to Me Like I’m Five …. 99bitcoins.com. ↑ How bitcoin mining works. Coindesk. ↑ Explain a Bitcoin hash to Me Like I’m Five…. 99bitcoins.com. ↑ How bitcoin mining works. Coindesk. ↑ Empower My Supply Chain. Skuchain. ↑ Ridesharing for the people. Arcade City. ↑ KHANECTIONS, LLC CREATES BLOCKCHAIN BASED SMART BIRTH AND DEATH CERTIFICATE REGISTRATION ... r/explainlikeimfive: Explain Like I'm Five is the best forum and archive on the internet for layperson-friendly explanations. Don't Panic! Press J to jump to the feed. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts . r/explainlikeimfive. log in sign up. User account menu. 0. ELI5: How are Bitcoins "mined" Close. 0. Posted by. u/NotMyRealFaceBook. 6 years ago. Archived. ELI5 ... From Bitcoin Wiki. Jump to: navigation, search. A genesis block is the first block of a block chain. Modern versions of Bitcoin number it as block 0, though very early versions counted it as block 1. The genesis block is almost always hardcoded into the software of the applications that utilize its block chain. It is a special case in that it does not reference a previous block, and for ... Bitcoin puts the current compact-format target and the arbitrary-precision "extraNonce" number there, which increments every time the Nonce field in the block header overflows. Outputs can be anything, but Bitcoin creates one exactly like an IP address transaction. The extranonce contributes to enlarge the domain for the proof of work function. Miners can easily modify nonce (4byte), timestamp ...
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